Mosaic Performance Framework Research

If you are interested in learning about the research that shaped our conceptualization of the Mosaic Performance Framework and our Culture Mosaic, please refer to the references below:


Allen, N.J. & Meyer, J.P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1-18. doi:10.1006/jvbe.2001.1842

Appiah-Adu, K., & Singh, S. (1999). Marketing culture and performance in UK service firms. The Services Industry Journal, 19(1), 152-170. doi: 10.1080/02642069900000009

Anderson, E.W., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D.R. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability: Findings from Sweden. Journal of Marketing, 58(July), 53-66. doi: 10.2307/1252310

Argyris, C. (1997). Initiating change that perseveres. American Behavioral Scientist, 40(3), 299-309. doi: 10.1177/000276429704000305

Ashkanasy, N., Broadfoot, L., & Falkus, S. (2000). Questionnaire measures of organizational culture. In N. Ashkanasy, C. Wilderom, & M. Peterson (Eds.), Handbook of organizational culture and climate (pp. 131-145). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Bartley, B., Gomibuchi, S., & Mann, R. (2007). Best practices in achieving a customer-focused culture. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 14(4), 482-496. doi: 10.1108/14635770710761889

Bendapudi, N., & Bendapudi, V. (2005). Creating the living brand. Harvard Business Review, 83(5), 124-132. Retrieved from

Bendapudi, N., & Berry, L. L. (1997). Customers’ motivations for maintaining relationships with service providers. Journal of Retailing, 73(1), 15-37. doi: 10.1016/S0022-4359(97)90013-0

Benko, L. B. (2001). Getting the royal treatment. Many health plans are going the extra mile for consumers looking for the best service for their healthcare dollar. Modern Healthcare, 31(26), 28-32. Retrieved from

Berger, P.L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality: A treatise it’s the sociology of knowledge. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.

Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1992, Spring). Prescriptions for a service quality revolution in America. Organizational Dynamics, 5-15. Retrieved from

Bititci, U. S., Mendibil, K., Nudurupati, S., Garengo, P., & Turner, T. (2006). Dynamics of performance measurement and organisational culture. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 26(12), 1325-1350. doi: 10.1108/01443570610710579

Blery, E., Batistatos, N., Papastratou, E., Perifanos, I., Remoundaki, G., & Retsina, M. (2009). Service quality and customer retention in mobile telephony. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 17(1), 27-37. doi: 10.1057/jt.2008.26

Boan, D. M. (2006). Cognitive-behavior modification and organizational culture.  Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 58(1), 51-61. doi: 10.1037/1065-9293.58.1.51

Boyce, A. (2010). Organizational climate and performance: An examination of causal priority (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text. (Publication No. AAT 3417693)

Bryant, B.E., & Cha, J. (1996). Crossing the threshold: Some customers are harder to please than others. Marketing Research, 8(Winter), 20-28.

Burrell, D. N. (2008). Why small private liberal arts colleges need to develop effective marketing cultures. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 16(3), 267-278. doi: 10.1080/09652540802117157

Calori, R., & Sarnin, P. (1991). Corporate culture and economic performance: A French study. Organization Studies, 12(1), 49-74. doi: 10.1177/017084069101200104

Cameron, K.S., & Quinn, R.E. (2006). Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Casida, J., & Pinto-Zipp, G. (2008). Leadership-organizational culture relationship in nursing units of acute care hospitals. Nursing Economics, 26(1), 7-15. Retrieved from

Chan, C. P. (2001). Implications of organizational learning for nursing managers from the cultural, interpersonal and systems thinking perspectives. Nursing Inquiry, 8, 196-199. doi:10.1046/j.1320-7881.2001.00107.x

Chandler, G. N. (2000). Unraveling the determinants and consequences of an innovation-supportive organizational culture. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 25, 59-77. Retrieved from id=12536

Chapple, E. D. (1943). Anthropological engineering: Its use to administrators. Applied Anthropology, 2(2), 23-32. Retrieved from

Clark, M., & Payne, A. F. T. (1993, July). Customer retention: Does employee retention hold the key to success? Emerging Issues in Marketing. Proceedings of the 1993 Marketing Education Group Conference, Loughborough, England.

Conrad, C. A., Brown, G., & Harmon, H. A. (1997). Customer satisfaction and corporate culture: A profile deviation analysis of a relationship marketing outcome.  Psychology & Marketing, 14(7), 663-674. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199710)14:7<663::AID-MAR2>3.0.CO;2-E

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Cronin, J.J., & Taylor, S.A. (1992).  Measuring service quality: A reexamination and extension.  Journal of Marketing, 56(July), 55-68. doi: 10.2307/1252296

Dansereau, F., & Alutto, J. A. (1990). Level-of-analysis issues in climate and culture research. In B. Schneider (Ed.), Organizational culture and climate (pp. 193-236). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Davies, G., Chun, R., Da Silva, R. V., & Roper, S. (2003). Corporate reputation and competitiveness. London, England: Routledge.

Deal, T.E., & Kennedy, A.A. (2000). Corporate Cultures.  New York, NY: Basic Books.

Denison, D.R. (1997). Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness. Ann Arbor, MI: Daniel R. Denison.

Denison, D. R. (2006). Proving the link: ROA, sales growth, market to book. Research Notes, 1(2). Ann Arbor, MI: Denison Consulting. Retrieved from

Denison, D. R., Janovics, J., Young, J., & Cho, H. J. (2006). Diagnosing organizational cultures: Validating a model and method. Ann Arbor, MI: Denison Consulting. Retrieved from

Denison, D. R., & Mishra, A. K. (1995). Toward a theory of organizational culture and effectiveness. Organizational Science, 6(2), 204-223. doi: 10.1287/orsc.6.2.204

Denison, D. R., & Spreitzer, G. M. (1991). Organizational culture and organizational development: A competing values approach. Research in Organizational Change and Development, 5, 1-21. Retrieved from

Deshpande, R., Farley, J. U., & Webster, F. E., Jr. (1993). Corporate culture, customer orientation, and innovativeness in Japanese firms: A quadrad analysis. Journal of Marketing, 57, 23-27. Retrieved from

Deshpande, R., & Webster, F. E., Jr. (1989). Organizational culture and marketing:  Defining the research agenda. Journal of Marketing, 53, 3-15. Retrieved from

Dick, A. S., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 99-113. doi: 10.1177/0092070394222001

Donio, J., Massari, P., & Passiante, G. (2006). Customer satisfaction and loyalty in a digital environment: An empirical test. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(7), 445-457. doi: 10.1108/07363760610712993

Ennew, C. T., & Binks, M. R. (1996). The impact of service quality and service characteristics on customer retention: Small businesses and their banks in the UK.  British Journal of Management, 7, 219-230. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8551.1996.tb00116.x

Erkman, T., & Ordun, G. (2001). A study on correlations between types of organizational culture and management styles. In Ninth National Administration and Organization Congress Handbook (pp. 67-87). Silivri, Istanbul: University Press.

Falcione, R., Sussman, L., & Herden, R. (1987). Communication climate in organizations. In F. Jablin, L. Putnam, K. Roberts, & L. Porter (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 195-227). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Gagliardi, P. (1986). The creation and change of organizational cultures: A conceptual framework. Organizational Studies, 7(2), 117-134. doi: 10.1177/017084068600700203

Ganesh, J., Arnold, M. J., & Reynolds, K. E. (2000). Understanding the customer base of service providers: An examination of the differences between switchers and stayers. Journal of Marketing, 64, 65-87. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.

Garnett, J. L., Marlowe, J., & Pandey, S. K. (2008). Penetrating the performance predicament: Communication as a mediator or moderator of organizational culture’s impact on public organizational performance. Public Administration Review, 68(2), 266-281. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6210.2007.00861.x

Gebhardt, G. F., Carpenter, G. S., & Sherry, J. F., Jr. (2006). Creating a marketing orientation: A longitudinal, multiform, grounded analysis of cultural transformation. Journal of Marketing, 70, 37-55. Retrieved from

Gillespie, M. A., Denison, D. R., Haaland, S., Smerek, R., & Neale, W. S. (2008).  Linking organizational culture and customer satisfaction: Results from two companies in different industries. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17(1), 112-132. doi: 10.1080/13594320701560820

Gillet, E., & Stenfert-Kroese, B. (2003). Investigating organizational culture: A comparison of a ‘high’- and a ‘low’-performing residential unit for people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 16, 279-284. doi: 10.1046/j.1468-3148.2003.00170.x

Gordon, G. G., & DiTomaso, N. (1992). Predicting corporate performance from organizational culture. Journal of Management Studies, 29(6), 783-798. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.1992.tb00689.x

Gregory, B. T., Harris, S. G., Armenakis, A. A., & Shook, C. L. (2009). Organizational culture and effectiveness: A study of values, attitudes, and organizational outcomes. Journal of Business Research, 62, 673-679. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.05.021

Gregory, K. L. (1983). Native-view paradigms: Multiple cultures and culture conflicts in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 359-376. Retrieved from

Hatch, M. J. (1993). The dynamics of organizational culture. Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 657-693. Retrieved from

Hertzog, J. L., Wright, D., & Beat, D. (2008). There’s a policy for that: A comparison of the organizational culture of workplaces reporting incidents of sexual harassment.  Behavior and Social Issues, 17, 169-181. Retrieved from

Heskett, J. L., Jones, T. O., Loveman, G. W., Sasser, W. E., Jr., & Schlesinger, L. A. (2008, July-August). Putting the service-profit chain to work. Harvard Business Review, 118-129. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document No. 876529)

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences.  Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Hofstede, G. (1998). Identifying organizational subcultures: An empirical approach.  Journal of Management Studies, 35(1), 1-12. doi: 10.1111/1467-6486.00081

Hofstede, G., Bond, M. H., & Luk, C. (1993). Individual perceptions of organizational cultures: A methodological treatise on levels of analysis. Organization Studies, 14(4), 483-503. doi: 10.1177/017084069301400402

Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D. D., & Sanders, G. (1990). Measuring organizational cultures: A qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 286-316. doi: 10.2307/2393392

Hu, H., Kandampully, J., & Juwaheer, T. D. (2009). Relationships and impacts of service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and image: An empirical study.  The Services Industries Journal, 29(2), 111-125. doi: 10.1080/02642060802292932

Huang, K. (2003). Is organizational culture explicitly linked to perceived corporate performance? A multidimensional analysis of corporate culture and perceived corporate performance in the United States and Taiwan (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT No. 3105572)

Jermier, J. M., Slocum, J. W., Jr., Fry, L. W., & Gaines, J. (1991). Organizational subcultures in a soft bureaucracy: Resistance behind the myth and façade of an official culture. Organizational Science, 2(2), 170-194. doi: 10.1287/orsc.2.2.170

Jung, T., Scott, T., Davies, H. T., Bower, P., Whalley, D., McNally, R., & Mannion, R. (2009, November/December). Instruments for exploring organizational culture: A review of the literature. Public Administration Review, 1087-1096. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6210.2009.02066.x

Katz, J. H., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Katz, J. H., & Miller, F. A. (1996). Coaching leaders through culture change. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 48, 104-114. Retrieved from

Keiningham, T. L., Cooil, B., Andreassen, T. W., & Aksoy, L. (2007). A longitudinal examination of net promoter and firm revenue growth. Journal of Marketing, 71, 39-51. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.71.3.39

Koberg, C. S., & Chusmir, L. H. (1987). Organizational culture relationships with creativity and other job-related variables. Journal of Business Research, 15, 397-409. doi: 10.1016/0148-2963(87)90009-9

Kotter, J. P. (1995, March). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 73(2), 59-67. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document No. 4470386)

Kroeber, A. L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. Papers of the Peabody Museum, 47(1A). Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Kwon, U., Beatty, S. E., & Lueg, J. E. (2000). Organizational values, work norms, and relational role behaviours: An empirical retail assessment. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 10(4), 401-416. doi: 10.1080/09593960050138958

Lawson, R. B., & Ventriss, C. L. (1992). Organizational change: The role of organizational culture and organizational learning. The Psychological Record, 42(2), 205-219. Retrieved from

Lee, S. K., & Yu, K. (2004). Corporate culture and organizational performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(4), 340-359. doi: 10.1108/02683940410537927

Lemmink, J., & Mattsson, J. (2002). Employee behavior, feelings of warmth and customer perception in service encounters. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 30(1), 18-33. doi: 10.1108/09590550210415239

Lipton, M. (2003). Guiding growth: How vision keeps companies on course. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.

Lok, P., Westwood, R., & Crawford, J. (2005). Perceptions of organizational subculture and their significance for organizational commitment. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54(4), 490-514. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00222.x

Marson, B. (1993, Spring). Building customer-focused organizations in British Columbia. Public Administration Quarterly, 30-41. Retrieved from

Martin, J. (2002). Organizational culture: Mapping the terrain. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Martin, J., & Powers, M. E. (1983). Truth or corporate propaganda: The value of a good war story. In L. R. Pondy, P. Frost, G. Morgan, & T. Dandridge (Eds.), Organizational symbolism  (pp. 93-107). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Mattila, A. S. (2001, December). Emotional bonding and restaurant loyalty. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 73-79. doi: 10.1016/S0010-8804(01)81012-0

McEwan, B., & Buckingham, G. (2001). Make a marque. People Management, 17, 40-44. Retrieved from

Mittal, V., & Kamakura, W. A. (2001). Satisfaction, repurchase intent, and repurchase behavior: Investigating the moderating effect of customer characteristics. Journal of Marketing Research, 38(1), 131-142. doi: 10.1509/jmkr.

Mosley, R. W. (2007). Customer experience, organizational culture and the employer brand. Brand Management, 15(2), 123-134. doi: 10.1057/

Narver, J. C., & Slater, S. F. (1990, October). The effect of a market orientation on business profitability. Journal of Marketing, 20-35. doi: 10.2307/1251757

Nier, S. L. (2009). The relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance in a large federal government agency. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Science and Engineering, 70(01), 3342455.

O’Toole, J., & Bennis, W. (2009, June). What’s needed next: A culture of candor. Harvard Business Review, 87(6), 54-61. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document No. 1718977951)

Ouchi, W. G. (1981). Markets, bureaucracies, and clans. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25, 129-141. Retrieved from

Overholt, M. H., & Granell, E. (2002). Managing strategic, cultural and HRM alignment to maximize customer satisfaction and retention.  In P. M. Wright & S. A. Snell (Eds.), Highlights of the Human Resource Planning Society’s 2002 state-of-the-art & practice study: Managing strategic, cultural, and HRM alignment to maximize customer satisfaction and retention. Retrieved from

Poskiene, A. (2006). Organizational culture and innovations. Engineering Economics, 1(46), 45-50.

Quinn, R. E. (1988). Beyond rational management. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Quinn, R. E., & McGrath, M. R. (1985). Transformation of organizational cultures: A competing values perspective. In P. Frost et al. (Eds.), Organizational culture (pp. 315-334). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Quinn, R. E., & Rohrbaugh, J. (1981). A competing values approach to organizational effectiveness. Public Productivity Review, 5, 122-140. Retrieved from

Reichheld, F. F., Markey, R. G., & Hopton, C. (2000). The loyalty effect—The relationship between loyalty and profits. European Business Journal, 134-139. Retrieved from

Rucci, A. J., Kim, S. P., & Quinn, R. T. (1998, January-February). The employee-customer-profit chain at Sears. Harvard Business Review, 82-97. Retrieved from

Saffold, G. S., III. (1988). Culture traits, strength, and organizational performance: Moving beyond “strong culture.” Academy of Management Review, 13(4), 546-558.

Sayles, L.R., & Wright, V.L. (1985).  The use of culture in strategic management.  Issues & Observations, 5(4), 1-9. doi: 10.1002/lia.4070050401

Schein, E. H. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Schneider, B., Parkington, J. J., & Buxton, V. M. (1980). Employee and customer perceptions of services in banks. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25, 252-267. Retrieved from

Schultz, M., & Hatch, M. J. (2006). A cultural perspective on corporate branding: The case of LEGO Group. In J. E. Schroeder & M. Salzer-Morling (Eds.), Brand culture (pp. 13-29). New York, NY: Routledge.

Seiders, K., Voss, G. B., Grewal, D., & Godfrey, A. L. (2005). Do satisfied customers buy more? Examining moderating influences in a retailing context. Journal of Marketing, 69, 26-43. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.2005.69.4.26

Seren, S., & Baykal, U. (2007). Relationships between change and organizational culture in hospitals. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 39(2), 191-197. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2007.00166.x

Shera, W. (2008). Changing organizational culture to achieve excellence in research.  Social Work Research, 32(4), 275-280. doi: 10.1093/swr/32.4.275

Singh, K. (2007). Predicting organizational commitment through organization culture: A study of automobile industry in India. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 8(1), 29-37. doi: 10.1080/16111699.2007.9636149

Smidts, A., Pruyn, A. T., & Van Riel, C. B. (2001). The impact of employee communication and perceived external prestige on organizational identification.  Academy of Management Journal, 49(5), 1051-1062. doi: 10.2307/3069448

Smircich, L. (1983). Concepts of culture and organizational analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 339-358. doi: 10.2307/2392246

Smith, R. E., & Wright, W. F. (2004). Determinants of customer loyalty and financial performance. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 16, 183-205. doi: 10.2308/jmar.2004.16.1.183

Wall, E. A., & Berry, L. L. (2007). The combined effects of the physical environment and employee behavior on customer perceptions of restaurant service quality.  Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 48(1), 59-69. doi: 10.1177/0010880406297246

Wangenheim, F. V., Evanschitzky, H., & Wunderlich, M. (2007). Does the employee-customer satisfaction link hold for all employee groups? Journal of Business Research, 60, 690-697. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.02.019

Whetstone, J. T. (2005). A framework for organizational virtue: The interrelationship of mission, culture and leadership. Business Ethics: A European Review, 14(4), 367-378. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8608.2005.00418.x

Wilkins, A. L., & Ouchi, W. G. (1983). Efficient cultures: Exploring the relationship between culture and organizational performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 468-481. doi: 10.2307/2392253

Zazzali, J. L., Alexander, J. A., Shortell, S. M., & Burns, L. R. (2007). Organizational culture and physician satisfaction with dimensions of group practice. Health Services Research, 42(3), 1150-1176. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00648.x

Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The behavioral consequences of service quality. Journal of Marketing, 60, 31-46. doi: 10.2307/1251929

Zheng, W., Yang, B., & McLean, G. N. (2010). Linking organizational culture, structure, strategy, and organizational effectiveness: Mediating role of knowledge management. Journal of Business Research, 63, 763-771. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.06.00